1. Introduction

Farmet Corporation is engaged in development, design, production and sale of complex technological equipment for extrusion and processing of vegetable oils; and for feed production.  The attitude to the complex technology (plant) including differencing into individual operational sets is described the material “Plant Design fort extrusion of vegetable oils, further as Plan Design Farmet”. In the enclosure we pass on the “General Trading Conditions”. We recommend reading these materials in detail before reading this technical information.

This technical information represents complex solution for the operational set PS2 for feed extrusion. 



Farmet Corporation produces a number of screw extruders covering a wide range of outputs and possible usages. It is possible to set the extruders into an extrusion line with the total output counted from the number and types of used extruders. The following table summarizes possible usages of individual types of extruders: 


Required capacity of the extruding line*

Type of extruders
1000 kg/h
1500 kg/h
2000 kg/h
4000 kg/h
FE 100
FE 250
FE 500
FE 1000
  Recommended configurations

*Given data are informative only, they can change according to the extrudate or with the help of Options. Parallel lining up of extruders enables setting the technology with a multiple output. 

Usage of produced extruders, their modifications and various ways of pre-treatment of the extrudate offers many possibilities how to solve particular requirements on production or treatment of individual feed elements or their mixtures.

                                                     Fig.1 - Extruder FE500


2. Range of the Solution

The offer includes a set of machines and equipment, which as a whole provides effective extrusion of highly nutritional feed. It is possible to design the technology for processing of a wide range of feed ingredients such as cereals, legumes and their mixtures with other biological material (fodder, meat and meat waste, fish, etc.)

Our specialists have already done the extrusion of a number of various feed and mixtures and they will help you with optimal choice for your enquiry. We are able to carry out pilot extrusion tests of your supplied material in our R&D centre for extrusion and pressing.

The basic principle of the technology is always an extruder of appropriate type, which can be optionally (OPTION) fitted with a range of auxiliary devices. Further, it is also optional and possible to equip the extrusion line with devices for pretreatment of material before extrusion, forming the extrudate, cooling and possibly transporting to the oil storage.

The subject of this offer is not storing input or output raw material.  

The offered technological equipment includes:

  • Equipment in compliance with the text of this offer (equipment signed as “Options” is not a part of the basic offered price. The price of the “Option” is stated separately, or it will be stated after checking local conditions)
  • Technological electrical installation
  • System of Control and Visualization of Processes (according to the choice of automation)
  • Accompanying documentation – the instruction manual for using the technology and individual equipment; technological and electrical layouts, documentation of pressure tanks (as applicable)
  • EU directive Declaration of conformity for all used equipment according to EU rules for delivery in EU. When providing participation with the investor’s general project engineer, then EU directive declaration for the whole delivered technology.

The project is a part of the delivery only in case of delivery the complex technological line; it is not a part of the delivery of the extruder itself. This category contains:

  • Project study of the technology
  • Project bases for creating documentation for building permission
  • Documentation for implementing the technology
  • Documentation of the actual condition

 The offered technological equipment does not include:

  • Construction project – we expect co-operation with the general engineer of the investor
  • Any construction works
  • Transportation to the realization site
  • Bringing power distribution of the electric energy to the switchboards of the technology
  • Compensation of the reactive power (to be solved centrally for the whole plant)
  • The source of steam- a boiler room producing the required amount of steam according to the parameter table
  • Certification and eventual revision and approving outside the EU
  • General fire, electrical, hygienic and other approving and revision performed in accordance with the overall construction
  • Assembly
  • Chief assembly (supervision), putting into operation and staff training are not included in the basic price but these items are priced separately. 

This offer contains only machines and equipment explicitly stated in this Technical information. 


3. Process and theTechnology 

 3.1. The Principle of the Offered Technology

General extrusion principles:

The term EXTRUSION is used for processes consisting of kneading, heating up, pressing the material through an orifice with the aim to achieve mechanical and thermal treatment of material. Extrusion belongs to the HTST methods (High Temperature Short Time) because this is a process of short time action of high temperature.

The term EXTRUDER is hereby used for a screw-action pressing-through machine.

In the area of feed production, the technology of extrusion is used for:

  • Improving properties of the feed thanks to mechanical and thermal treatment in the extruder
  • Forming the feed by pressing through a die (granules, pellets).

Usage of extrusion brings the following advantages:

  • Mechanical grinding – Obtaining a very fine structure for good digesting. During the expansion at the output from the extruder the inner structure of material is disrupted, making digestion easier. At the same the surface area of the feed extends, which makes the transfer of nutrients in the digesting system easier.
  • Transformation of proteins (denaturation) – Short time heating up above 100°C with simultaneous action of pressure inside the extruder causes very effective transformation (cooking, denaturation) of proteins, thus increasing the energy value of the feed.
  • Deactivation of raw enzymes
  • Radical decreasing of content of anti-nutrients and nature toxins – Extrusion effectively removes a number of anti-nutrients. For example extrusion of soya radically decreases values of urease activity. Reduction of content of the inhibitor tripsin is very positive for nutrition of monogasters. 
  • Sterilization – Temperature and pressure in the extruder kill bacteria, fungi and other unfavourable organisms and pests. Fungi formation followed by production of myco-toxins stops, which provides longer storage time.
  • Gelatinization of starches – Starches are frequent and important component of feed. Compound starches and sugars break down during extrusion into simple ones, which enables better digestibility of feed.
  • Homogenization and possibility of forming – The extruder provides mixing of all components of feed. Pressing the mixture through a shaped die it is possible to form it into various shapes (to be used e.g. like dog or pet feed). Sufficient content of binding substances in the extrudate (mostly starches) is a necessary condition for forming and keeping the shape of the feed.

Some properties of the extrusion process are unique and cannot be replaced by other way of processing.

3.2. General Description of the Extrusion Process

The processed material is continuously dosed into the extruder. To do this, it is necessary that the extruder is always equipped with a dosing conveyor. It is not possible to fill up the extruder completely! The extruder is equipped with a screw with a variable ratio of inclination and depth so that the input material would be compressed, crushed and kneaded and heated above 100°C by friction. Thanks to the high pressure water contained in the seed stays in a liquid state even at temperatures over 100°C. Heating of the material by friction in a thin layer is very fast and equal. Short heat up time (short temperature exposition) and exposure to the high pressure have impact on the transformation of proteins, amyls and on suppression of anti-nutrients.

Heated and compressed material outputs from the extruder continually by a small nozzle. Very intensive expansion takes place at the output from the extruder. As soon as the material leaves the extruder through the nozzle, it gets into free atmosphere and water evaporates immediately. Material expands including water contained inside cells. Therefore, there follows intensive disruption of cell structures, amyls and proteins, which consequently improves nutritional feed value.

If there are binding substances in the processed material (starches or similar) it is possible to form the feed very effectively into granules of various shapes by choosing the shape of the nozzle and adding a cutter.

                                         Fig.2 – Scheme of the temperature and pressure increase in the extruder


3.3.  Materials Suitable for Extrusion

The process of extrusion is suitable for a wide range of biological materials, but it is always necessary to set up the process and adapt the content of a particular material, primarily water and oil content.

To run the extrusion process correctly, the input material must contain water for “cooking the proteins” and the subsequent expansion as well as a certain minimum ratio of oil (fat) and water for “lubricating” the extruder. Very simply, we can say that for a stable extrusion process it is necessary to provide “some grease” (it means percentage of water and oil) in the range of approximately 20-30%. The example of suitable material for extrusion is soya, which is most often processed by using the technology of extrusion.  

For soybeans it is assumed that moisture of the input material should not be lower than 8% and the content of oil in the range 18-22%. That is altogether 26-30%, which is ideal.

With the higher content of oil in oilseeds, the material in the extruder is too liquid (mashed) and the extruder does not work correctly. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease the content of oil by previous expeller pressing (we will be happy to send you the offer of pressing) when processing of oilseeds with the oil content higher than 25% is required. We can press-off a part of oil in the first level of pressing so that there is the content of oil in pressing cakes from the first level about 20% and moisture is about 10%. This is optimal state for extrusion.

With lower content of oil in oilseeds, the extrusion is also possible. However, it is necessary to increase moisture to sufficiently “lubricate” the extruder. This can be achieved by adding water or steam into the input material.

To ensure a stable process, it is sometimes suitable to add fat (greasing of feed mixtures) into the extruded material.

It is commonplace to extrude various mixtures of grain or oilseed together with addition of animal byproducts (meats, grinded bones, etc.).

Due to different properties of various feed (content of fibre, starches, water, etc) it is necessary to optimize the technology for particular material or a group of similar materials.

The material should be before the extrusion grinded or crushed, so that it can enter through the gravitational inlet into the extruder. The finer and better quality the crushing and mixing is, the more even and better is the process of extrusion itself.

In order to prevent blocking the extruder inlet, the entering particles should not exceed 10mm for small extruders FE100 and FE250 or 25mm for extruders FE500 and FE1000.

Optimization of extrusion process can be ensured by:

  • adjustment of moisture (drying /moisturizing)
  • adjustment of oil content (pressing away a part of oil / greasing)
  • mechanical treatment by crushing, dehulling, etc.
  • temperature adjustment by steaming or heating
  • adjustment of pressure and friction conditions inside the extruder by changing the screws or constraint inserts
  • fine adjustment of pressure conditions by regulating output holes or diameter of the nozzle


Input material
Oil content (%)
Example Technology Recommendation
Up to 16%

Cereals, legumes, flour, semolina, various mixtures

Wet extrusion, possibly greasing

It is necessary to use the Option for wet extrusion, or pre-treatment of the material

From 16% to 22%
Soya, oilseeds after pressing,
Rice germs, etc.
Dry extrusion

Choosing options according to demands for oil content in the extrudate

Above 22% Oilseeds

Pressing away a part of oil, followed by dry extrusion

Require our offer for pressing with extrusion

 In case of interest in extrusion of non-standard material, do not hesitate to contact us for concretizing the information


3.4.  Description of the Offered Technology
(According to the technological layout in the Enclosure no. 3)

 The hearts of the technology of extrusion are extruders FARMET FE100, FE 250, FE500 and FE1000, which cover a wide range of outputs. Further extension is possible to achieve by parallel lining of extruders. The following table lists the reference outputs of individual extruders for wet and dry extrusion: 

Extruder Type
Typical output for dry extrusion* (kg/h)
Typical output for wet extrusion * (kg/h)
Energy Input (kW)
FE 100

FE 250


FE 500


FE 1000

* Stated data are referential; they can change according to the extruded material and/or using Options. Parallel lining of extruders achieves sets of technologies with multiple outputs. Data for wet extrusion are depend on the OPTION used. 

Enlarging options of individual extruders it possible with choosing Options – optional accessories.

Input of material

Pro correct operation of the extruder it is always necessary to deal with continuous dosage of input material to the extruder. It is preferable to have the possibility of automatic dose changing for optimization of the process. This is also advisable to have the possibility of the response to overloading and other operating conditions. Therefore, a dosing conveyor is always a part of the basic delivery.

According to conditions of particular implementation, there can be considered these basic options:

  1. Manual input of material.  This option comes into consideration for small extruders (FE100, FE250). The extruder is equipped with a dosing conveyor and a small hopper (Option), which is expected to be manually dosed.
  2. Hopper with the sensor for controlling the previous technologies.  Same as in the previous case, the extruder is equipped with its own dosing conveyor and hopper (Option). This hopper is fitted with a level sensor, which can be used to control previous customer’s technology (conveyors, etc.).
  3. Central input of material.   In this case, the input of the material is solved together for more extruders or a technological line equipped with options for pre-treatment of the material. In such case, the input element is the intermediate bin (Option). The dosing conveyor of the extruder can be connected directly to the previous device of the set.

If the pre-treatment is included prior to extrusion (see Options grinding, heating, steaming), the dosage is controlled until the material treatment and then it is again headed into the extruder. Absolutely uniform dosing into the extruder is important for proper function.

Material treatment prior to extrusion

It is possible to equip the technology at the input by a range of Options for preliminary treatment of material. The choice of suitable Options depends on requirements and conditions of the investor, on the type of processed material and on requirements for the quality of the extrudate. Some Options have a direct impact on the performance of the technology.

Oilseed cleaning is Option suitable for cereals and oil plants which get rid of undesirable impurities (stones, straw, etc.) by cleaning. At the same time is also protects the extruder against excessive wear.

Continuous weighing is Option suitable for bulk materials. Investor has an overview about the processed amount.

Grinding/crushing of the material using a grinding/crushing machine provides mechanical grinding of material. This ensures better quality of the extrudate (homogeneity) and it increases the performance of the extruder. If choosing the option Seed Grinding, the grinding machine is equipped with forced ventilation. Aspirated dust is separated in the cyclone. The delivery does not include filtration of the aspirated air behind the cyclone. We recommend placing the cyclone into the storage of extrudate.

Partial removing of hulls (for sunflower seeds and soya) it reduces fibre content in the extrudate.

Optional accessories of the extruder for dry/wet extrusion

As already stated, the content of water is very important for the process of extrusion. In practice there has been used division of feed extrusion into two processes – dry extrusion and wet extrusion

Dry extrusion: Presence of a certain amount of water is always necessary for carrying out the process of extrusion. The name “Dry extrusion” expresses the fact that no water is added into the process. The process has sufficient water (moisture) of the processed material. This is common for example by soya (moisture 10-12%, fat 18-20%). The technology of dry extrusion is therefore very simple – material only goes through the extruder (can be grinded in advance).

Wet extrusion: In the process of “Wet extrusion” we understand that the water is added into the process. It is possible to add water by several ways:

  1. injection of water directly into chambers of the extruder
  2. injection of steam directly into chambers of the extruder
  3. moisturizing the material directly prior to extrusion by steaming in heated conditioner

All these options are further described individually as Options.

Heated conditioner is device used for heating up (it is heated) and moisturizing (injection of steam or water) the material prior to extrusion. It is equipped by a system of moving the material together with synchronic gradual mixing.

Extra set of screws for dry/wet extrusion – it is an Option, which includes delivery of an alternative set of screws and inserts. By changing this set it is possible to use the equipment for both dry and wet extrusion (extruder must be equipped by other Options for wet extrusion) 

Extruder Performance

The performance depends on the processed material, content of water, temperature of material and surrounding temperature. The performance is given by the fact that the energy of the extruder drive must be converted into the heat for heating up the material to the extrusion temperature (110 – 140°C depending on material). Therefore one extruder with the same input of the drive can process more material, if the material is pre-heated at the input. The conditioner is heated and injection of of steam also increases the temperature. Therefore with increasing temperature the performance of the extruder rises.

It is also necessary to realize that the water has much higher specific heat capacity. Energy needed for heating up the water is much higher than for heating up the dry matter of biological material that is why the performance can decrease when having higher moisture of the material. The performance depends on the temperature and moisture.

From the point of view of the operating costs, it must be emphasized that it is possible to achieve the lowest cost by using the cheapest source of energy. Therefore it is advisable to substitute a part of expensive electric energy necessary for extruder drive by cheaper source according to possibilities (gas boiler room, coal, bio mass, etc.) The specific electric energy consumption (kW per 1 ton) will then significantly decrease.

We recommend using of steam conditioner with steaming especially for larger equipment.

Reference summary of the influence of various methods of treatment on the performance of the extruder is stated in Enclosure 1 – Parameter.

Extrudate treatment:

The extruded material (Extrudate) jets from the extruder by a little nozzle. By cohesive materials (mostly with a content of amyl) it is necessary to interrupt the input current; otherwise there appear long “strands” of extrudate. The option Cutting Head is there to help. It is assembled directly on the output of the extruder and enables setting the size of granules by choosing rotation speed of the cutting head. 

                                                                  Fig.3 – OPTION Cutting Head

If we emphasize maintaining the shape, it is necessary to carry out the following manipulation with granules with much care before they cool down and become firmer. Therefore it is advisable to carry the extrudate into the cooler by means of a conveyor – a belt conveyor being the most suitable one – See the Option Cooling of the Extrudate.

For wet extrusion it is often necessary to increase moisture at the input to the extruder to increase good progress of the extrusion. Due to considerable evaporation caused by steam expansion at the output of the extruder the final moisture is higher than moisture suitable for storing. Therefore, it is necessary to order the Option EXTRUDATE DRYING.

Further treatment, storing, bagging or other solution is not a part of this offer. For wider extrusion lines we will be pleased to provide a project of solution.

For storing the extrudate of common feed (e.g. soya) it is also possible to use solution processed by Farmet Corporation for pressing cake storage – Offer PS5 – Pressing Cake Storage.

Other Options:

Water steam aspiration

When heating the seed in the extruder there is also partial evaporation of water contained in the seed. The evaporation takes place at the output of the extruder. The output of the extruder and collecting conveyor are suitable to be forced aspirated – this is solved by the Option - Water Steam Aspiration. A part of the device is a ventilator and air-conditioning pipeline to places of the emergence of evaporation. Connecting to the overall air-conditioning of the building is not provided. Created condensate is drained into pressing cakes or into a sewer system with regard to the local situation. 

Dustiness of the technological equipment

All equipment and transport ways are designed and sealed so that the emission of dust is decreased. Still, in the conveyors, in spills, hoppers emission of dust can appear. If solution of these places is required, choose Option Dust Aspiration.

How to choose suitable technology and equipment

  1. Firstly, it is important to decide, which version of the technology (wet or dry extrusion) you require as basic.
  2. Based on particular needs and requirements you have to choose suitable Options.
  3. You have to decide which automation and control you require – see the chapter 6.

The core of the delivery is always the extruder and the dosing conveyor (its particular design depends on the type of the technology and used Options)

                   Fig. 4 – Small extruder FE100 for manual filling (version for dry extrusion)


                               Fig. 5- Extruder FE 250 for manual filling (version for wet extrusion)


                                                Fig. 6 - Extruder with FE500 (version for wet extrusion), 
                                             Without hopper, ready for installation into the extrusion line


 3.5.  Operation and Visualization of the process

You can choose 3 variants of delivery from the point of view of electrical system, measuring and regulation and process visualization. They are:


Electrical switchboard with controls on the front panel is a part of the delivery. Controlling is done only by classical elements (contactors, relays of current protection of extruder’s drive). 

Only the frequency changer of the dosing conveyor with manual setting of rotation speed has been installed. There are button controllers on the panel of individual drives with backlighting. There is a controlling element of setting the rotation speed of the dosing conveyor, possibly controls of other options – must be chosen and ordered at the same time – later addition into the switchboard is not guaranteed.

Actual value of the current taken away by the main drive of the extruder is visualized on the panel. Temperatures of the extruder are measured locally.

The CLASSIC version is not equipped with the system of intelligent control and visualization FIC.


In the variant CLEVER, electrical system, measuring, control and visualization of the whole technology are based on the FIC Farmet Inteligence Control system (see TI Control and visualization system FIC in enclosure).


This version has identical functionality as the version CLEVER, but it is accompanied by a frequency changer for the main drive of the extruder. It brings entirely new possibilities in optimizing the process of extrusion, in automatic system reactions and in protection of the drive. With the CLEVER MAX variant it is possible to achieve excellent extrusion parametres setting. This is done by adjusting the rotation speed for each specific material. The frequency of necessary manual interventions decreases (adjustment of nozzles, replacement of inserts); and the stability of the process increases. You will get better protection of the drive against overload and the system itself resolves the majority of transitional or emergency conditions.    

In both variants CLEVER AND CLEVER MAX the whole technology is controlled by automat (PLC) from a touch visualization and control panel placed on the main switchboard.  (We presume placing switchboards directly in a close proximity of the extruder). PLC can communicate with the visualization PC placed in the control room (If Option Visualization PC is included), where all measured values from the process are displayed and where is also possible to carry out complete control of the technology.

The operation of the complex device has been designed as automatic with a regular round control. Stages and important process parametres are visualized on TOUCH –panel of the switchboard and at the same time on the control PC in the control room. Description of the visualization and “Manual for the technology operation” are done in official language of the given locality.

                          Fig. 7 - Illustrative view of process visualization on the central visualization control PC


The system of control controls a large amount of values and parametres and evaluates seriousness of possible exceeding. When incorrect values occur, the operator is optically warned on the control panel, in en emergency case also by a sound signal. If the deviation is important or dangerous, the system itself starts the controlled shutdown of the technology. When really dangerous parametres occur or when activating the circle CENTRAL STOP, all equipment will be stopped immediately to ensure safety.

In terms of system of control, it is necessary to point out that from the point of view of the technology, an instant shutdown of the fully compressed screw press or extruder is a very drastic step and needs to be minimized. Therefore it is necessary to use the CENTRAL STOP button only to distract danger. It is always necessary to carry out controlled shutdown of the extruder; first stop the input of the material, secondly the extruder is emptied after a short time and then completely stopped.

Controlling of the complex equipment is not time taking. Estimated number of operating personnel is stated in the Enclosure no.1. Proper training and knowledge of the technology and its system of control are very important.

It is also necessary to count with carrying out regular cleaning. We recommend carrying out shutdown and complete technology cleaning at least once in 6 months.

3.6.  Subsidiary Sets

Source of Steam

Source of steam at given parametres is necessary for pre-heating of material in the conditioner (Option). This source of steam is not a subject of this offer and customer must provide input of steam to the place stated in the project.

Water steam Aspiration

When heating up oilseeds in the extruder, water contained in oilseeds partially evaporates. Evaporation happens at the output of the seed from the extruder, in the extrudate conveyor and in the cooler. The extruder, output of the extruder, collecting conveyor and coolers are force aspirated. Parts of the Option - Aspiration are also a ventilator and air-condition pipelines to the place of evaporation. Connection to the overall air-conditioning of the building is not a part of the offer.

Dust Aspiration

All equipment and transport ways are designed and sealed so that the emission of dust is decreased. Still, in the conveyors, in spills, hoppers emission of dust can appear. If solution of these places is required, choose Option Dust Aspiration. 


 4. OPCE-Options

 All of these options are delivered including their electro wiring and connection to the system of control, regulation and visualization. Prices of Options stated in the price offer are valid only when ordering together with the order of the technology PS2. Costs of additional delivery are usually significantly higher and must be calculated according to the particular situation.

Please, allow proper attention to the choice of Options and complex specification at the beginning of preparing your investment project. Fill in and send us, please completed specification according to the Enclosure no.7 – Specifications for processing the price offer.

Water Steam Aspiration

This OPTION includes aspiration of water vapours from the extruders; it does not contain air conditioning system of the building. In case that the OPTION Extrudate cooling is choosed simultalenously, the aspiration system (fan) of the cooler is used for aspiration of steam as well.

Dust Aspiration.

This OPTION solves possible emissions of dust in conveyors, skids, hoppers, etc.

To be solved within the projecting stage.

Extra set of screws for dry/wet extrusion

This OPTION includes an alternative of screws and inserts. By changing this set, the equipment can be alternatively used for both dry and wet extrusion (the extruder must be fitted with other OPTIONS for wet extrusion, too).

Steam heated extruder chambers

This OPTION contains delivery of working chambers of the extruder with double shell, which enables its heating with steam (max. 0,6 MPa). This additional input of heat ensures better control and higher stability of the extrusion process and at the same time increase of extruder output (see enclosure 1 - Prameters). A portion of the heat is supplied by steam instead of friction. If steam comes from a cheaper source than electicity, such energy is thus cheaper and this OPTION therefore decreases the operational costs.

For models FE1000, FE4000 only.

Requires steam supply.

Injection of oil into the extruder

This OPTION is suitable for extrusion of materials with low fat content, when additional fat dosing is required.

Set of Special Tools

A set of special tools and instruments for maintenance and adjustment of the extruder of the given type.

Visualization PC

See chapter 3.6. Process control and visualization



Hopper for the extruder small for manual filling
This OPTION includes a separate hopper for 1 extruder.
It is suitable namely for types FE100, FE250
Hopper small with a level sensor

This OPTION includes a separate hoppe for 1 extruder, equipped with a level sensor, which enables to control the previous technology (i.e. a conveyor which supplies material into the hopper).

Intermediate Bin for a few hours of operation and a dosing conveyor

This OPTION includes common hopper for several extruders and a dosing conveyor into next equipment.

Increases demand for area.
Oilseed Cleaning

A sieve vibratory cleaning machine removes large impurities (stones, straw, etc). and fine dust, sand. Choosing this OPTION will ensure better quality of extrusion and protects the technology from damage by stones and other large items. At the same time it increases the life span of the technology.

Suitable for oilseeds.
Significantly increases demand for area and installed power.
Continuous oilseed weighing at the input

Tenzometric continuous scales gives information on the processed quantity, i.e. on immediate throughput of the technology.

Suitable for oilseeds.
Crushing of oilseeds

Seeds are being crushed with a mill. Crushing improves the extrusion process and helps to increase the general throughpur of the line.

Suitable for oilseeds.
Significantly increases demand for area and installed power.

It serves for partial removal of hulls before extrusion. This will decrease the fibre content in the extrudate and the extrudate will become a more valable feed with higher protein content.

This OPTION is to be choosen together with the OPTION Crushing of oilseeds.

Suitable for soya, sunflower.
Significantly increases demand for area and installed power.
Temperature stabilization – electro, including the source

To keep the extrusion quality and throughput it is necessary to maintain temperature of the incoming material above 15°C (better within the range 20°C – 40°C). This OPTION ensures heating up of the incoming material by approx. 20°C using a electric boiler, which is included in the delivery of this option. In case that there is a cheaper source of energy locally available, its utilization may be considered in the projecting stage.

This OPTION may be well used also at temperatures above 15°C, as it can supply a part of heat into the material. Therefore this heat does not need to be formed directly in the extruder and that enable slight increase of throughput.

Suitable for dry extrusion.
Suitable for oilseeds.
Increases demand for area and installed power.
Temperature stabilization – steam without the source of steam

To keep the extrusion quality and throughput it is necessary to maintain temperature of the incoming material above 15°C (better within the range 20°C – 40°C). This OPTION ensures heating up of the incoming material by approx. 20°C using a steam-heated heating conveyor. The steam source in not included in delivery of this option.

This OPTION may be well used also at temperatures above 15°C, as it can supply a part of heat into the material. Therefore this heat does not need to be formed directly in the extruder and that enable slight increase of throughput.

Suitable for dry extrusion.
Suitable for oilseeds.

Increases demand for area and installed power.

Steam source required.


Dosing of water into the extruder

This OPTION contains a frequancy controlled dosing pump with an injection nozzle for dosing of water into the input part of the extruder.

Heating water prior to injection – electro

This OPTION enable preheating of water prior being injected into the extruder. This OPTION must be ordered together with the OPTION Dosing of water into the extruder.

Increases demand for area and installed power.
Injection of steam into the extruder

This OPTION serves for moisturizing and simultaneous warming-up of the material by supplying steam directly into the chambers of the extruder.

Conditioner steaming without heating (not-pressure)

This OPTION serves for moisturizing and simultaneous warming-up of the material before entering the extruder. The shell of the conditioner is not heated, heat is being brought only by direct injection of steam.

Increases demand for area.
Conditioner heated by steam and system of steaming

This OPTION serves for moisturizing and simultaneous warming-up of the material before entering the extruder. The shell of the conditioner is heated by steam, steam is simultaneously being dosed directly into the material.

Increases demand for area.
Steam source required.
Source of steam - electro

This is a compact steam generator for installation right onto the extruder FE100.

For extruder FE100 only.

Significantly increases demand for installed power.

Source of steam – gas This is a classical steam boiler heated by natural gas.
Suitable for extruders FE250, FE500, FE1000 and FE4000.
Significantly increases demand for area.
Cutting Head

The cutting head serves for splitting the extrudate in granules. Length of the granules can be adjusted by regulation of revolutions.

Suitable for processing of materials containing starch. Increases demand for installed power.

Shaping nozzle (die)

Pushing the material through a die will form the outgoing extrudate the form according to the customer´s requirements.

Suitable for processing of materials containing starch.
Cooling of extrudate

This OPTION includes transport of extrudate with a band conveyor into a cooler (location of the cooler is assumed approx 10m away) and delivery a vibratory cooler.

Significantly increases demand for area and installed power.
Drying of extrudate

Extrudate cooling should be solved on request according to the specific application, depending on the type of material, throughput, moisture content at the output from the extruder and required storage moisture content. Selectrion of adequate technical solution is to be done within the projecting stage.

Significantly increases demand for area and installed power.


 5. Parametres of Equipment 

In the table in the Enclosure no.1 – Parametres - are stated basic parametres of performance, quality, energy and space requirements for typical solution of dry and wet extrusion and their typical crops. They are referential data for standard proved solutions and some of this data can be modified according to specific requirements of the particular investment project. To achieve the and quality parametres it is necessary to provide both the technology run in and steady-state operation.

The decisive parameter is the output of the technology (amount of processed material per unit of time).

5.1. Parametres of the processed material

The extrusion can process almost any biological material (plant and animal), and its mixtures.

A precise definition of the properties in this general offer is therefore complicated. That is why we provided only the basic prerequisites and requirements for a good extrudability. In the particular case, please give us the material properties that you want to extrude, and we'll suggest some possible solutions. Alternatively, it is possible to agree providing an extrusion test of your material on our testing equipment.

Moisture and oil content – as “lubricant and stabilizator” of the process has been stated above.

Basically we can say that the content of “lubricant” it means eater and oil should not be lower than about 20-30%. For example, it the oil content is only 6% the input moisture should be about 20%. This can be reached by adding water r steam into the input material.

The content of oil is usually given by natural content of oil in the material or by the requirement for the content of oil in the feed – In this case we recommend ordering the Option Oil Injection into the extruder for filling missing oil/fat.

Moisture, it means content of water, is absolutely limiting for extrusion for a vast majority of feed with low content of oil. Wet extrusion helps to improve this state. In simpler cases (at smaller capacities) injection of water directly into the extruder is sufficient (recommended heating for loss of output).

Wet extrusion with a steam conditioner

Full-featured professional solution of wet extrusion with a steam conditioner is the best and the most versatile solution. The conditioner has been designed for direct injection of steam, which provides moisturizing but also steam condensation thanks to fast and intensive heating of material.

Thanks to great internal latent heat of water (heat released during condensation of 1 kg of steam is about 1000 times higher than heat necessary for heating of 1kg of biological material for 1°C (1l water = 2 257K´kJ/kg,  cbio = 2,2 kJ/kg). When adding 10% of steam into the material, the temperature rises for 100°C, in practice for 80°C.

The conditioner has been designed for retaining time of material for about 7 min. In the design CLEVER and CLEVER MAX the mixing system is supplemented by frequency control, which enables basic change of amount of material in the conditioner and this changing the time of staying in.

Utilization of a two-level conditioner – an ideal solution

Injection of steam is done in the first level so that desired moisture of material is achieved. This will also provide heating, but the temperature reached by condensation does not have to be optimal.

In the second level no other steam is injection (but it can be), but indirect heating done by heat exchange is used to achieve stabilization and optimal extrusion temperature. This will allow separate regulation of moisture and temperature which will provide excellent process optimizing. At the same time it will allow extension of the pre-treatment time in the conditioner.


This solution - heating – extrusion provides tools for achieving the best duality of processed feed and food.

Temperature of processed material – influences the energy consumption. All data in this offer assume that the temperature of the input material is 20°C. if the temperature is lower, it is necessary to count with higher demands on energy for heating, which can lead to lowering the technology output.


  6. Requirements for Installation and Operation of the Technology

In order to provide conditions for installation and operation of the technology, the customer must count with ensuring further stated terms and conditions. Provided parametres are referential and it is necessary to concretize them during designing the project study or project preparation of the technology implementation.

 6.1 Permises for installation

It is necessary to provide insulated building with minimum dimension stated in the table in Enclosure no.1. – Parametres. Mostly it is necessary to have much larger premises for storing the extrudate. Logistics also plays an important role – way of bringing the seeds, dispatching of pressing cakes and oil. It is necessary to solve this issue within the project study. More is in the material Plant Design.

6.2. Energy

Electrical energy – technological device uses voltage system 3+PEN/3 + N + PE, AC 50Hz, 3 x 400 / 230 V. The installed electric input is presented for each capacity in the table in the Enclosure no.1. – Parametres, where is the estimated paralleling is stated.

Steam  it is used for the Options Conditioner, Injection of Steam into the extruder, and Steam heated chambers of the extruder.

Estimated consumption of steam depends on the input material moisture, on the required change of moisture before the extrusion and on the required heating of the material.  Precise setting of the steam dosing must be carried when putting into the operation. It is always necessary to count with the change of processed raw material and different requirements.

Therefore, we recommend that you install the source of steam, which ensures the possibility of addition up to 15% of the steam to the processed material (i.e., 15 kg of steam/hour for every 100 kg of material/hour). In real the consumption will be lower. Dimensioning og the Option Source of Steam is done in the same way. Measuring consumption of steam per 1000kg of material – input pressure of steam 0.6Mpa for extruder’s chambers - 0.3MPa for the heating conveyor. 

Water – is used for options – Injection of Water into the extruder. Input of drinkable water from the …is sufficient for injection of water into the extruder. Water consumption depends on the type of extruded material (its moisture and oiliness)

6.3.  Operational media

Operation of the extrusion line does not require any further operational media.

6.4.  Specific consumption per 1000kg of the extruded material (reference data)

Consumption of the extruder itself:

Type of energy

Dry Extrusion
Wet with Water Injection
Wet steam
El. Energy kW
80 - 120
90 - 130

50 - 110

Steam  kg/h


50 - 200


6.5.  Laboratory

In order to operate the technology, it is necessary to regularly find out the parameters and to check the setting in accordance with the results.

The laboratory in not a part of the delivery.

The customer is to ensure continuous operation of his laboratory or to arrange cooperation with an external laboratory.

Requirements for the laboratory:

Required laboratory tests:

  • Incoming oilseed, pressing cakes, hulls (if applicable) – measuring of:
moisture, oiliness – the most suitable are analytical instruments with short time of processing the results within about 30 minutes, with a possibility of verification by means of classical methods of extraction and drying within approx. 24 hrs.


  • Fibre content in the pressing cakes – within approx. 24 hrs.
  • Fat content in the hulls – within approx. 24 hrs.


  • Phosphorus content in oil - the most suitable are analytical instruments with short time of processing the results within about 30 minutes, with a possibility of verification by means of classical methods


  7. Operation and Maintenance of PS2

All equipment contained in this offer has been designed for non-stop operation (24hours a day) without inefficient shutdowns with estimated operation 330 days a year.

The stabilization technology (temperatures and parameters) is carried out up to a few hours (especially for larger types). Therefore, it is advisable to always count with non-stop operation for many days and with Schedule shutdowns for service and maintenance.

The process of extrusion itself is waste-free – there is no waste formed in the technology. At he same time it is necessary to warn that there appear dust emission, water vapour and natural aromatic substances.

Natural aromatic substances – (smell typical for each material) are released during manipulation and processing depending mainly on temperature. Intensive water evaporation can be noticed at the output of the extruder as well as emission of aromatic substances; therefore, it is advisable to count with it when choosing a suitable area for the technology installation.

Water steam – is released at the output of the extruder, in the following conveyors or in the cooler if this is used. Therefore it is necessary to aspirate these places locally and conduct the steam out of the building. You can order this aspiration as the option. Conducting the steam out of the building or connection to the air-conditioning of the building needs to be solved later when doing the project of air-conditioning of the building for a particular place and this solution is not a part of this offer.

Dust – dust appears not at extrusion itself but when manipulating with the material (spills of conveyors, delivering feed in and out of storage, etc). The solution needs to be proposed for a particular project.

Technology PS2 is designed for continuous operation with automatic control and permanent control by the operating personnel. The technology requires trial operation and conditioning of the equipment (see the General Trading Conditions). The technology of pressing (also extrusion) is based on creating pressure by mechanical friction in the inner parts of the press (screws, lamellas, chambers), therefore it is necessary to count with operational wear. It is necessary to count with carrying out regular cleaning. We recommend carrying out shutdown and complete cleaning of the technology at least once every 6 months.

For production of screws we use the highest quality materials and procedures, stii it is necessary to count with replacement of worn screws and inserts of presses and extruders (also by projectile disks of hullers if used). The service life of screws is significantly dependent on processed raw material and its purity (Be aware of abrasive dust and sand – We recommend the Option Cleaning). 



  1. Parametres of technological equipment
  2. Definition of delivery borderlines
  3. Technological layout PS2
  4. Dispositional layout